Enhancing causal inference

Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:

  • Describe cause-effect relationships and enumerate the four rival explanations
  • Identify ways to minimize chance
  • Discuss bias and identify ways to avoid bias
  • Identify ways to make confounding less likely
  • Offer several suggestions or strategies for incorporating opportunistic observational designs
  • Explain how causal inference can be enhanced by positive evidence.

Written by:

Deborah Grady

Biography :

Deborah Grady is a professor at the School of Medicine, associate dean of clinical and translational research, and co-director of the Clinical and Translational Science Institute, UCSF.


Accreditor credit Accreditation statement
BMJ Learning 1 credit, 1:00 hour BMJ Learning has assigned one hour of credit to this module
BMJ and UCSF 4 credits, 4:00 hours The BMJ and UCSF have assigned 4 hours of credit to this module.

Release date

03 Feb 2016

Last updated

03 Feb 2016